Research: Religious Bullying


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Religious bullying occurs when a religious or religiously unaffiliated person chooses to intentionally or unintentionally degrade another person emotionally, mentally, or physically based on: 1) the bullied individual’s actual or perceived religious or religiously unaffiliated identity, or 2) the doctrines or practices of their belief; thereby creating or maintaining a power imbalance between the parties. This imbalance can manifest in various unexpected ways, as depicted in the image above. As such, religious bullying can be initiated by or directed towards atheists or religious and agnostic individuals alike. It can also occur across religious groups, within religious groups, or between those who are religious and those who have no religious affiliation. Like other forms of bullying, this can occur through physical, psychological, or verbal means in-person and/or online (Kirman, 2004; PREVNet; and can affect someone in the short-term or long-term into adulthood or into future generations (Cram, 2001; DeLara, 2016; Farrington, 1993).

This type of bullying requires attention as witnesses or victims of religious bullying are often alienated and exposed to injustices, which can lead to mental health, suicide, and religio-political affiliation through religious extremism, which can harm the global society (Keddie, 1998; Moghaddam, 2005).

Religious bullying is dangerous and, as with other forms of bullying, poses short term and long term effects, including:

  • lower self-esteem
  • poor mental health
  • depression
  • social anxiety
  • sluggishness
  • difficulty sleeping
  • poor appetite
  • increased chance of suffering self-injury or injury by others
  • inattentiveness
  • poor academic performance
  • skipping class/school
  • alcohol and/or drug use
  • ideas of suicide
  • suicide

(DeLara, 2016; Nansel et al., 2004; Pan & Spittal, 2013; Totten & Quigley, 2003, etc.)

In North America, approximately 8-15% of students experience religious bullying (Craig & Edge, 2012; Harris Interactive, 2005). However, religious bullying is often overlooked and misunderstood by teachers (Craig & Edge, 2012; Chan, 2012).

Having witnessed it myself as a teacher and seen peers who were also unfamiliar with this form of bullying, my research aims to consider an alternate way to address religious bullying as some anti-bullying programs have been found to be counterproductive because students acquire bullying slurs they were previously unaware of (Jeong & Lee, 2013; Mitchell, 2012).  Specifically, I explore the potential for religious literacy programs, such as Montréal, Québec’s Ethics and Religious Culture program and Modesto, California’s World Geography & World Religions course, to address religious bullying through its pedagogy of dialogue and character education that promotes respect, humility, and empathy.

While I seek a potential means for religious literacy programs to address religious bullying, several valuable and informative resources also exist that raise awareness of religious bullying specifically and offer solutions.  A few solutions are posted below.  I will continue to post more throughout the duration of my research.

Reports and articles about religious bullying:

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Programs and guides to address religious bullying:


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